Ancient Egyptian Calendar

The Egyptian Calendar is the ancient Calendar known to humankind:

Today marks the Egyptian year 6262, the start of the primary Egyptian and international Calendar in human history.
The ancient Egyptians developed the Calendar to divide the year into 12 months and 05 days. It depends on the solar cycle. The Egyptian Calendar is one of the primary calendars known to humanity.

The ancient Egyptians then discovered the year and divided it into seasons, months, days, and hours. one of their astronomical miracle at the time, that they were able to distinguish between a straightforward year and a leap one.       

Both The Coptic calendar or the "Martyrs' Calendar," relies mainly on the ancient Egyptian Calendar. It was called the solar Calendar, which is an arithmetic system that the ancient Egyptians established for the division of the year. The year they created consists of 12 months.

The Calendar was calculated based on the solar cycle and is one of the primary calendars known to humanity and therefore the most accurate in terms of climate conditions and agriculture during the year, where the Egyptian farmer had relied on it to understand the seasons of agriculture and crop yielding for thousands of years.

The Egyptian Calendar contributed to the event of various calendars of ancient civilizations, whether or not they were solar or lunar. Although thousands of years have passed since the start of the old Egyptian Calendar, which relied on the Nile to arrive at determining the beginning of the year, it's also this Calendar that regulates agriculture in Egypt in modern times. Despite the series of changes that have affected it later, it's the foremost accurate Calendar to this point due to the weather, similarly because of the different seasons of agriculture.

According to the Egyptian researcher Joseph MamdouhTawfik, the ancient Egyptian Calendar is very accurate and was a miracle of its time. However, it's not exactly in line with this solar Calendar used around the world

The Ancient Egyptian civil Calendar followed the cycle of the Nile's yearly flooding that occurred on the 11th day of September of the Julian calendar. From this day, defined as the first of the year, the agricultural activities were divided into three seasons of four months:


The Egyptian calendar was broken down as follows:

•    One week was ten days.
•    Three weeks was one month.
•    Four months was one season.
•   Three seasons and five holy days was one year.

First season      Flood………  ⇒  AKHET season   Its months were Tekh, Menhet, Hwt-Hrw, and Ka-Hr-Ka
Second season Sowing………⇒ Proyet season     Its months were Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds, and Renwet.    
Third season     Harvest……...⇒ SHOMU season   Its months were Hnsw, Hnt-Htj, Ipt-Hmt, and Wep-Renpet  

The ancient Egyptians used a calendar with 12 months of 30 days each, for a total of 360 days per year. About 4241 B.C., they added five extra days at the end of every year to bring it more into line with the solar year. These five days became a festival because it was thought to be unlucky to work during that time.

In addition to the civic Calendar, the Egyptians also had a religious calendar based on the 29 1/2-day lunar cycles which was more closely linked with agricultural cycles and the stars' movements.

The correct figures are lunation: 29 d, 12 h, 44 min, 2.8 sec (29.530585 d); solar year: 365 d, 5 h, 48 min, 46 sec (365.242216 d)

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